Answers to questions 1–19
Premium cataract surgery: when things don’t go to plan – Dr Uday Bhatt
What is the satisfaction range for the new generation of multifocal IOLs?
Which of the following is NOT a common cause of problems following multifocal IOL implant?
A. Ocular surface disease
B. Residual refractive error
C. Incorrectly implanted IOL
D. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO)
Which of the following is NOT a cause of multifocal IOL decentration?
A. IOL versus capsular bag size disparity
B. Capsular phimosis
C. Rhexis tear
D. Vitreous prolapse
Which of the following statements is CORRECT in diffractive multifocals?
A. Patients have high tolerance to PCO
B. PCO can improve night vision difficulties in patients
C. Patients tend to have early YAG capsulotomy
D. Do YAG capsulotomy first, if considering IOL exchange
Overdiagnosis of glaucoma – challenges in correct diagnosis (T) – Dr Raj P Pathmaraj
Which factor will cause over-estimation of intraocular pressure measurement?
A. Post-myopic LASIK
B. Corneal oedema
D. Fluorescein ring too narrow
Which clinical feature does NOT suggest non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy?
A. Decreased visual acuity
B. Decreased colour vision
C. Absence of relative afferent pupillary defect
D. Pale neuroretinal rim
Which of these is NOT a risk factor for development of glaucoma?
A. Sleep apnoea
B. Thyroid eye disease
C. Alcohol abuse
D. Systemic steroids
Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT): where does it stand in glaucoma treatment? (T) – Dr Lei Liu
In which condition is SLT most likely to be effective as a first-line option?
A. Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
B. Normal tension glaucoma
C. Traumatic angle recession glaucoma
D. Primary angle closure glaucoma
Which one of the following statements is INCORRECT?
A. 50% of eyes treated with SLT are expected to fail by 2 years
B. Response to SLT is not universal, and its IOP lowering effect tends to abate with time
C. The effectiveness of SLT depends on baseline IOP and pigmentation of trabecular meshwork
D. SLT uses 532 nm Q-switched, frequency-doubled neodymium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser of 50 μm pulse diameter and 3 ns duration
Which complication is not associated with SLT?
A. IOP spike
B. Cystoid macular oedema
C. Retinal tear
Glaucoma and OCT: detecting progression and ‘red disease’ (T) – A/Prof Tim Roberts
How many OCT scans constitute a series with which we can evaluate RNFL thinning?
D. Number not important – needs to be two years’ worth of scans
An update on MIGS – Dr Uday Bhatt
If a patient has sequential OCTs demonstrating RNFL loss that doesn’t change over time, what could be a possible cause?
B. Corneal thinning
C. Previous (old) visual pathway injury
D. Machine error
Which of the following can cause red disease on OCT?
B. Myopic eye shape
C. Macular degeneration
D. All of the above
Clinical pearls in red eye management (T) – A/Prof Tim Roberts
A one-week post-cataract surgery patient presents with a red, painful eye, reduced vision and a hypopyon. The most likely cause is:
B. Cystoid macular oedema
D. Retinal detachment
A contact lens patient presents with a suspected microbial keratitis. They should be referred:
A. Urgently, the same day
B. Within two days
C. Within a month
D. If it doesn’t improve after two weeks of monitoring on topical antibiotics
The most appropriate treatment for a patient with moderate viral conjunctivitis is:
A. Topical antibiotics
B. Topical anti-inflammatories
C. Topical and oral anti-inflammatories
D. Supportive lubricant drops
Managing posterior capsular opacification – what are the challenges and novel treatments in the pipeline? (T) – Dr Alex Ioannidis
Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is caused by:
A. The acidic pH found in the aqueous humour
B. Residual lens epithelial cells (LECs)
C. Trauma to the endothelium
D. Prolonged surgical time
Complications of YAG laser capsulotomy include:
A. Corneal trauma
C. Retinal detachments
D. IOL discolouration
Novel treatments to resolve PCO include:
A. Chemo-digestion of LECs
B. Femtosecond laser primary capsulotomy
C. Mitomycin C anterior chamber washouts
D. Capsular polishing during phaco